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Pontifical: MS 28

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Object information

Titles

Pontifical

Maker(s)

Master of the Vitae Imperatorum and assistants (Artist)

Description

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Parchment, i paper flyleaf + ii parchment flyleaves + 450 fols. (foliated i-vi, 1-444) + ii parchment flyleaves + i paper flyleaf, 358 x 255 mm (218 x 154 mm), 22 long lines, ruled in faint grey plummet, catchwords

BINDING: 2002, alum-tawed skin over wooden boards, two alum-tawed straps with metal clasps on lower cover, two catchplates on upper cover, by Robert Proctor

CONTENTS:
fols. i recto-v verso Contents list of the Pontifical
fols. 1r-135r Pontifical, Part I
fols. 135v-251v Pontifical, Part II
fols. 253r-409r Pontifical, Part III
fols. 409r-443r Benedictional, containing the episcopal blessings at Mass

DECORATION: One hundred and fifteen historiated initials with large acanthus foliage extensions into the margins: fol. 1r Confirmation, [P, 10 ll.] Bishop anointing a child with chrism, while parents bring children for confirmation, with full foliate and acanthus border including flowers, naturalistic birds, the monogram YhS in gold surmounted by a gold crown (used by the Visconti) in the upper border, in the lower border the arms of Pizolpasso surmounted by mitre, cross keys and crosier, set on a landscape between seated putti playing a pipe and mandolin, and below on either side a peacock and a duck; fol. 4v Preface to ordinations, [Q, 3 ll.] Bishop blessing members of the various orders of clergy; fol. 6r Instruments for ordination, [H, 3 ll.] Candlestick, two books, chalice, paten and wafer, four keys, two cruets, basin for the lavabo, laid out on an altar; fol. 10v Tonsure and shaving of beards, [S, 3 ll.] Cleric shaved by a barber; fol. 11r Ordination of door-keepers, [F, 3 ll.] Bishop gives keys to kneeling figure; fol. 12v Ordination of lectors, [H, 3 ll.] Bishop holds out book to two kneeling clerics; fol. 14v Ordination of exorcists, [L, 3 ll.] Bishop gives book to cleric; fol. 16r Ordination of acolytes, [E, 3 ll.] Bishop blesses an acolyte holding a candlestick; fol. 25r Ordination of deacons, [S, 3 ll.] Bishop blesses kneeling deacon vested with a stole; fol. 31r Ordination of priests, [D. 3 ll.] Priest vested in chasuble kneels before the bishop; fol. 43r Ordination of bishops, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop elect kneels before the Pope, flanked by a cardinal and two bishops; fol. 77r Admission of monks, [Q, 4 ll.] Monk kneels before the bishop; fol. 80r Profession of novices, [N, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a novice; fol. 82r Consecration of an abbot, [C, 3 ll.] Bishop puts a mitre on the head of an abbot; fol. 91r Consecration of an abbess, [E, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a kneeling abbess; fol. 92v Ordination of a deaconess, [D, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a kneeling deaconess; fol. 93r Consecration of virgins, [C, 4 ll.] Two women kneel before the bishop; fol. 109r Consecration of widows, [I, 4 ll.] Widow kneels before the bishop; fol. 110v Crowning of a king as emperor, [C, 4 ll.] King or emperor kneels before the Pope surrounded by cardinals and bishops; fol. 120r Crowning of a queen as empress, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop holds out an open book before a kneeling queen; fol. 123r Blessing of a king, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop, flanked by other bishops, blesses a kneeling king; fol. 129v Blessing of a queen, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a kneeling queen; fol. 131v Blessing of a prince or count palatine, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a kneeling prince or count palatine; fol. 132v Blessing of a new knight, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a kneeling knight; fol. 135v Laying foundation stone of a new church, [N, 4 ll.] Bishop presides as masons lay a foundation stone, with full foliate and acanthus border including two putti, a greyhound chasing a hare, two birds, two dragons and, at the bottom, the arms of Pizolpasso surmounted by mitre, cross keys and crosier; fol. 140r Dedication of a church, [E, 4 ll.] Bishop, holding a pyx and accompanied by acolytes, stands at entrance of a church; fol. 174v Aspersion of a new church, [T, 4 ll.] Bishop asperges exterior of church; fol. 177v Consecration of an altar, [Q, 4 ll.] Bishop stands at an altar with a rectangular incision in the centre for the relics; fol. 197v Consecration of a portable altar, [A, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a miniature version of an altar complete with frontal and retable (the artist evidently was unaware of what a portable altar looks like); fol. 204v Consecration of a cemetery, [Q, 3 ll.] Bishop blesses a cemetery; fol. 210v Reconsecration of a desecrated church and churchyard, [E, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a church surrounded by a cemetery; fol. 218v Reconsecration of a cemetery, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a cemetery; fol. 219r Blessing of chalice and paten, [P. 4 ll.] Bishop places a chalice and paten on an altar; fol. 221r Blessing of priestly vestments, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop asperges a chasuble and alb laid on an altar; fol. 223v Blessing of a new crucifix, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses crucifix; fol. 225v Blessing of incense boat and thurible, [D, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a thurible placed on an altar; fol. 227v Blessing of an image of the Virgin, [B. 4 ll.] Bishop blesses an altarpiece which has the image of the Madonna of Humility; fol. 229r Blessing of an image of a saint, [Q, 4 ll.] Bishop asperges a golden statue of a saint; fol. 230r Blessing of altar vessels, [V, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses gold ciboria and a pyx set on an altar; fol. 230v Blessing of reliquaries, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses an open chest containing reliquaries; fol. 233r Blessing of an altar canopy, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a wooden canopy set above an altar; fol. 234r Blessing of altarpieces and altar frontals, [T, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a golden altarpiece and a textile altar frontal; fol. 234v Blessing of a font, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop asperges a font; fol. 235r Blessing of a bell, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop asperges a bell; fol. 238v Blessing of vessels given to a church, [M. 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a gold vessel on an altar; fol. 239r Blessing of bread for Sundays and the Assumption, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blessing loaves on an altar; fol. 239v Blessing of bread for distribution to the poor on Ascension Day and Pentecost Sunday, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a basket of loaves; fol. 240v Blessing of lamb and other meat, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a carcase of lamb on a platter set on an altar; fol. 241v Blessing of milk, honey and cheese, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses milk, honey and cheese on an altar; fol. 241v Blessing of grapes on the feast of the Transfiguration, [U, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a bowl of grapes set on an altar; fol. 242r Blessing of new fruits, [B, 3 ll.] Bishop blesses bowls of fruit set on an altar; fol. 242r Blessing of a hairshirt, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a hairshirt on an altar; fol. 242v Blessing of ashes on Ash Wednesday, [D, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses ashes in a basket on an altar; fol. 243r Blessing of crosses for pilgrims, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop gives staffs to two kneeling pilgrims with crosses on their garments; fol. 244v Blessings of staffs and scrips for pilgrims, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop blessing two kneeling pilgrims holding their staffs; fol. 246v Office on the return of pilgrims, [E, 4 ll.] Bishop asperges two kneeling pilgrims; fol. 247v Blessing of a new house, [N, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses the exterior of a house; fol. 248r Blessing of a ship, [N, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a ship on the sea in rocky landscape; fol. 248v Blessing of arms, [A, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses armour laid on an altar; fol. 249v Blessing of a sword, [B, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a sword on an altar; fol. 249v Blessing of a military banner, [O, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a banner held by a man; fol. 250r Blessing of a child yet unborn, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses a kneeling woman; fol. 253r Expulsion of the penitents at the beginning of Lent, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop at the church door expels the penitents, with full foliate and acanthus border including flowers, two birds, a dragon and, at the bottom, the arms of Pizolpasso surmounted by mitre, cross keys and crosier; fol. 257v Washing of the feet on Maundy Thursday, [I, 4 ll.] Priest washes the feet of a group of people; fol. 267r Blessing of chrism, [T, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses vials of holy oils held by three clerics; fol. 273r Blessing of balsam, [D, 3 ll.] Bishop blesses a golden vessel held by a cleric; fol. 280r Office for Good Friday, [F. 4 ll.] Bishop kneels before the altar on Good Friday; fol. 284r Office for Holy Saturday, [S, 4 ll.] an acolyte holds a thurible up to the bishop; fol. 290r Blessing of a table, [S, 4 ll.] Priest blesses a table with a wine flagon, cakes and knives; fol. 292v Ordo for a Synod, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop kneels at an altar; fol. 297v Ordo for suspension of those in holy orders, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop dismisses a man; fol. 303v Ordo for excommunication and absolution of excommunicants, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop absolves a kneeling man; fol. 309v Reconciliation of an apostate, [A, 4 ll.] Bishop stands before a church door with his hand on a man's shoulder; fol. 312v Ordo for those setting out on a journey, [P, 4 ll.] Bishop walks with two men, one holding a travelling bag; fol. 314r Ordo for visitation of parishes, [P, 4 ll.] Bishop blesses three men before a church door; fol. 317r Ordo for the reception of a papal legate or greater prelate, [P. 3 ll.] Bishop receives a cardinal at a door; fol. 319r Ordo for the reception of a king or prince [S, 4 ll.] King kneels before the bishop; fol. 319v Ordo for the reception of a queen or princess, [Q, 4 ll.] Queen kneels before the bishop; fol. 320r Vesture and instruments for Pontifical Mass, [P, 4 ll.] Two clerics lay pontifical vestments, mitre and crosier on an altar; fol. 320v Preparation for Pontifical Mass, [P.4 ll.] Two acolytes holding crosier and book precede the bishop to the altar; fol. 329v Preparation for Pontifical Mass, [Q, 4 ll.] Bishop reads from the Missal at an altar; fol. 358r Preparation for Pontifical Mass, [Q, 4 ll.] Bishop reading a book in the sacristy; fol. 363r Mass in the presence of a bishop, [P, 4 ll.] Priest celebrating Mass at an altar with the bishop standing at the side; fol. 367v Pontifical Mass of the Dead, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop at altar wearing a black chasuble; fol. 368r Pontifical Mass in the presence of the Pope [P, 4 ll.] Bishop celebrating Mass at an altar with the Pope, standing at the side; fol. 370v Assistant priest at Pontifical Mass, [C, 4 ll] Assistant priest offers the lavabo to the bishop; fol. 373r Bishop's chaplain at Pontifical Mass, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop's chaplain holds the mitre as the bishop holds up the chalice; fol. 374v Deacon at Pontifical Mass, [P, 4 ll.] Bishop reading from the Missal as the deacon removes his mitre; fol. 380r Subdeacon at Pontifical Mass, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop seated with the subdeacon putting on the buskins; fol. 384v Acolytes at Pontifical Mass, [I, 4 ll.] Four acolytes placing the Missal, alb, chalice and cruets on the altar; fol. 386r Thurifers at Pontifical Mass, [P, 4 ll.] Thurifer carrying the thurible and incense boat approaches the bishop standing between two candle-bearing acolytes; fol. 389r Dalmatics and tunicles for deacons and subdeacons, [C, 4 ll.] Deacon and subdeacon flank the bishop at the altar; fol. 390r Mitres, [M, 4 ll.] Bishop at the altar wearing the mitre and reading from Missal; fol. 391r Pastoral staff and bishop's sandals, [B, 4 ll.] Half-length figure of a bishop holding crosier and blessing; fol. 391r Pallium and Canopy for a metropolitan bishop, [U, 4 ll.] Bishop holding crosier under a canopy held by four men; fol. 392r White vestments, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop celebrating Mass at an altar wearing a white chasuble; fol. 392v Red vestments, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop celebrating Mass at an altar wearing a red chasuble; fol. 393r Green vestments, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop celebrating Mass at an altar wearing a green chasuble; fol. 393v Violet vestments, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop celebrating Mass at an altar wearing a violet chasuble; fol. 394r Black vestments, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop celebrating Mass at an altar wearing a white chasuble; fol. 394r Gloria, [Q, 4 ll.] Bishop stands at altar reciting the Gloria; fol. 394v Pax vobis, [P. 4 ll.] Bishop at altar turns toward kneeling people saying Pax vobis; fol. 394v Credo, [C, 4 ll.] Bishop at altar recites Credo; fol. 395v Ite missa est, [I, 4 ll.] Bishop at altar turns toward kneeling people saying Ite missa est; fol. 395v Episcopal benediction at Mass, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop at altar facing kneeling people and giving the blessing; fol. 397v Communion of priests and deacons, [P, 4 ll.] Bishop gives communion to a priest; fol. 398v Communion of bishops and abbots, [P. 4 ll.] Bishop gives communion to bishops and abbots; fol. 400r Priest's first Mass, [I, 4 ll.] Priest celebrating Mass at an altar; fol. 400v Joining of hands at Mass, [N, 4 ll.] Priest stands at altar with hands joined; fol. 401r Greater bows at Mass, [I, 4 ll.] Priest before the altar crosses his hands over his breast and makes a profound bow; fol. 401v Lesser bows at Mass, [S, 4 ll.] Priest before the altar crosses his hands over his breast and makes a slight inclination; fol. 402r Kissing of the altar at Mass, [I, 4 ll.] Priest at altar reading Missal; fol. 402v Elevation of hands at Mass, [C, 4 ll.] Priest at altar elevating hands; fol. 406v Joining of fingers at Mass, [S, 4 ll.] Bishop anoints palm of a priest (the artist has misread iunctione in the rubric for unctione); fol. 409r Pontifical blessings at Mass, [O, 4 ll.] Bishop at altar blesses a group of kneeling people, with partial foliate and acanthus border including flowers, a guinea fowl and a large grasshopper.

ORNAMENTATION: Gold initials [2 ll.] with pink and blue infills, frames decorated with white patterns, and small marginal extensions of gold ivy leaves (e.g. fol i recto); red, blue and violet pen-flourished initials [2-3 ll.], some with flourishes extending into the margin.

Notes

History note: Francesco Pizolpasso, Bishop of Pavia (1427-1435), Archbishop of Milan (1435-1443); recorded in the 1443 catalogue of the Biblioteca Capitolare, Milan cathedral; Richard, seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion (1745-1816), acquired in 1807; his bequest, 1816.

Place(s) associated

  • Milan
  • Pavia ⪼ Italy

Acquisition and important dates

Method of acquisition: Bequeathed (1816) by Fitzwilliam, Richard, 7th Viscount

Dating

Fifteenth century, second quarter
Circa 1435 CE - Circa 1440 1440 CE

People, subjects and objects depicted

Materials used in production

Ink
Gold

Components of the work

Support: composed of parchment

Techniques used in production

Penwork Illumination

Inscription or legends present

  • Text: Qui fecit celum
  • Secundo folio

References and bibliographic entries

Related exhibitions

Identification numbers

Accession number: MS 28
Primary reference Number: 176357
Project ID: 290
Stable URI

Audit data

Created: Saturday 6 August 2011 Updated: Friday 22 October 2021 Last processed: Friday 22 October 2021

Associated departments & institutions

Owner or interested party: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Associated department: Manuscripts and Printed Books

Citation for print

This record can be cited in the Harvard Bibliographic style using the text below:

The Fitzwilliam Museum (2020) "Pontifical" Web page available at: https://collection.beta.fitz.ms/id/object/176357 Accessed: 2021-12-07 08:17:38

Citation for Wikipedia

To cite this record on Wikipedia you can use this code snippet:

{{cite web|url=https://collection.beta.fitz.ms/id/object/176357|title=Pontifical|author=The Fitzwilliam Museum|accessdate=2021-12-07 08:17:38|publisher=The University of Cambridge}}

Bootstrap HTML code for reuse

<div class="text-center my-3"> <figure class="figure"> <img src="https://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/imagestore/msspb/msspb4/MS_2028_20_28ir_29.jpg" alt="Pontifical" class="img-fluid" /> <figcaption class="figure-caption text-info">Pontifical</figcaption> </figure> </div>

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