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Pauldrons: M.1.4D-1936

Object information

Maker(s)

Possibly Unknown (Production)

Description

Pair of pauldrons and vambraces, for field use. Each is formed of a pauldron of six lames connected by a turner to a vambrace comprised of a tubular upper cannon, a winged bracelet couter of three lames and a tubular lower cannon. The pauldron is formed of six lames that overlap outwards from the third which is shaped to the point of the shoulder. The first to third lames extend inwards over the chest and back. The third lame is expanded downwards to the level of the bottom of the sixth lame. The expanded portion has a strongly convex inner and lower edge, and is flanged at its outer edge where it overlaps the inner ends of the fourth to sixth lames which extend only to the inside of the arm. The first to third lames are connected to one another at their rear ends by modern, brass-capped, round-headed rivets with roughly cut, circular, internal washers. The rivet that connects the second and third lames moves within a slot cut in the second lame. The first to third lames are further connected to one another at their front ends and centres by internal leathers secured by pairs of modern rivets. The rivets are externally flush with the exception of those in the third lame which are round-headed with brass caps and circular, internal, washers. The front ends of the second and third lames are decorated with brass-capped, round-headed rivets occupying construction-holes aligning with the outer of the pair of rivets that secure the front leather. The third to sixth lames are connected to one another and the turner below them at their fronts, centres and rears by internal leathers secured by pairs of rivets. The rivets are externally-flush with the exception of those in the third lame which are round-headed with brass caps and roughly cut, circular, internal washers. The rivets that secure the central leather to the third lame are those that also retain the leather that connects the first to third lames to one another. In some places the leathers have been torn away from their rivets. To compensate for this, the central leather of the right pauldron has been attached to its third lame by a later externally-flush rivet with a circular washer located below the original pair of rivets. Except where they overlap the vambraces, the pauldrons are fitted around their main edges with narrow buff-leather lining bands secured in each case by eighteen rivets of which some are externally-flush and others are round-headed with internal washers, in most cases furnished with brass caps. The bands are broken and detached at some points. Secured by an externally-flush brass rivet at the apex of each pauldron is a modern single-ended brass buckle with a shaped and engraved hasp that engages a modern strap with engraved brass terminals, secured internally by the same rivet. The strap, which serves to connect the pauldron to the collar, is of buff-leather, covered with green (originally black) velvet, now much torn and frayed. Attached within the lower edge of each pauldron by three modern, brass-capped, round-headed rivets with roughly cut, circular, internal washers is a tubular turner. The turner has a forward-overlapping join at its inside, secured by a pair of externally-flush rivets. Its upper edge is cut away in a shallow, concave curve at the inside of the arm. The recessed decorative band at its lower edge locks over and rotates on the grooved and slightly outward-flanged upper edge of the upper cannon of the vambrace. The upper cannon is of tubular form with an inward overlapping join at its rear secured by three externally-flush rivets. The lower edge is cut away in a concave curve at the inside of the elbow. Each couter is formed of three lames that overlap outwards from the central one which is shaped to the point of the elbow and completely encircles the arm with an outward overlapping join at its rear secured by three externally-flush rivets. The central lame expands to a large wing at the front, and a slightly smaller one at the rear. The lames of the couter are connected to one another and to the upper and lower cannons of the vambrace at their outer ends by modern rivets which are externally flush except in the case of those that connect the second and third lames of the couter to one another and to the lower cannon at the front which are of round-headed form with brass caps and roughly cut, circular, internal washers. The upper rear corner of the first lame of the right couter has been repaired with a riveted internal patch. The tapering, tubular lower cannons are in each case formed of an inner and an outer plate: the former fitting within the latter. The plates are connected to one another at the front by an internal hinge, and fastened at the rear by a plain circular stud riveted just below the centre of the rear edge of the inner plate that engages a corresponding hole in the rear edge of the outer plate. The hinge, which is accommodated within a rectangular notch cut in the front edge of the outer plate, has rounded ends secured by pairs of modern, brass-capped, round-headed rivets to both the inner and outer plates. The upper edge of the inner plate is cut away in a concave curve to clear the inside of the elbow.
All the main edges of the pauldrons and vambraces have notched inward turns accompanied by recessed borders. All the horizontal subsidiary edges are decorated with slightly narrower recessed borders. Part of the composite half armour M.1.4A-E-1936.

Notes

History note: According to information probably supplied by Sir James Mann, and recorded under Acc. No. M.2-1950 in the Department of Medieval, Renaissance & Modern Works accession register, the composite armour of which the present piece forms a part was successively in the collections of [Louis] Bachereau, [S.J.] Whawell, [Sir Edward] Barry and Colville. E.W. Stead's own manuscript catalogue confirms that the armour came from the Barry collection. Mrs E.W. Stead and Mr Gilbert Stead of Dalston Hall, Cumberland.

Legal notes

Given by Mrs E.W. Stead and Mr Gilbert Stead

Place(s) associated

  • Augsburg ⪼ Germany

Acquisition and important dates

Method of acquisition: Given (1936-01-15) by Stead, E. W. and Gilbert

Dating

Mid-16th Century
Circa 1550 CE - 1560 CE

Note

An attempt has been made in modern times to alter the notched edges of the pauldrons and vambraces to roped edges in order to match the turns to those of the armour with which it is now associated.

It is clear from their possession of notched rather than roped turns, that these pieces cannot originally have belonged to the cuirass with which they are now associated. They nevertheless match it so closely in all other respects that it can be assumed that they are products of the same school and perhaps even workshop.

South German, possibly Augsburg

The pauldrons and vambraces have a 'black from the hammer' finish, now partly oxidised to a russet colour, with bright bands and borders showing a medium patination.

The vambraces are unusual in that their lower cannons open at the rear rather than the front. The spacings of the relevant connecting-rivets shows that the left and right lower cannons cannot have been inadvertently exchanged unless their couters have been exchanged with them.

Components of the work

Rivet Caps composed of brass (alloy) ( modern) Buckles composed of leather ( modern) Strap composed of velvet ( torn and frayed) Rivets composed of brass (alloy) Internal Leathers composed of leather Lining-bands composed of leather Right Depth 30.7 cm Height 66 cm Weight 2.88 kg Width 19 cm
Left Depth 31 cm Height 64.8 cm Weight 2.96 kg Width 8.5 cm
Lower Cannons Main Edge Borders Parts

Materials used in production

Steel

Techniques used in production

Hammered : Each is formed of a pauldron of six lames connected by a turner to a vambrace comprised of a tubular upper cannon, a winged bracelet couter of three lames and a tubular, hinged lower cannon; hammered, shaped, riveted, decorated with recessed borders
Forming

References and bibliographic entries

Related exhibitions

Identification numbers

Accession number: M.1.4D-1936
Primary reference Number: 18164
Stable URI

Audit data

Created: Saturday 6 August 2011 Updated: Monday 30 November 2020 Last processed: Sunday 21 March 2021

Associated departments & institutions

Owner or interested party: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Associated department: Applied Arts

Citation for print

This record can be cited in the Harvard Bibliographic style using the text below:

The Fitzwilliam Museum (2022) "Pauldrons" Web page available at: https://collection.beta.fitz.ms/id/object/18164 Accessed: 2022-07-07 02:10:24

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